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染料造粒的方法

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一、湿法造粒
  把染料滤饼、助剂和粘合剂加入到告诉混合器内进行充分混合,然后进入挤出造粒机,通过孔径1mm左右的筛网,挤出长度为0.5~2mm柱状颗粒。再经低温干燥,得到圆柱状颗粒,这种方法适用于活性染料等水溶性染料的造粒,在配方中加入的粘合剂主要有海藻酸钠、羧甲基纤维素、羟丙基纤维素、蔗糖、丙烯酸钠和聚乙烯吡咯烷酮等水溶性高分子化合物。粘合剂的加入量不宜过多,一般用量约为染料量的1%~5%。
  二、高频造粒
  高频造粒是把物料投入到造粒机内,造粒机底部设有桨式搅拌,在造粒机侧壁安装有可以产生高频振荡的搅拌装置,底部可以向粉体物料喷出粘合剂。经过搅拌,粘合剂与染料结合在一起,侧壁的搅拌装置对成粒起到强化作用。用这种方法得到的颗粒球形度好而且颗粒均匀,通过调换搅拌装置的形状以及震动的频率可以改变颗粒的粒度。
  三、熔融造粒
  将染料同助剂充分混合,常用的助剂是熔点在50~200℃水溶性化合物如尿素、糖和多元醇等,形成熔融物。形成溶液后送到可以分散成液滴的装置如多孔高速旋转离心喷头内,经冷却成型。采用这种方法得到的颗粒为实心颗粒,具有相当的机械强度,运输贮存等对颗粒的破坏率较小。
  四、干法造粒
  干法造粒是采用流化技术,将干粉状染料喷到流化床内,通过转制的喷嘴向流化床内喷洒粘合剂,成流化状态的粉状染料同粘合剂的雾滴充分接触被粘结在一起,经低温干燥后形成颗粒,这种方法可以连续生产,国外已经有定形的干粉造粒设备。
  五、喷雾造粒
  喷雾造粒是很多染料厂应用非常广泛的一种造粒方法,喷雾咋哩是染料在干燥的同时制成颗粒,特别适用于热敏性、低粘度染料的干燥造粒。根据设备形式,喷雾造粒又可以分为压力式、离心式、喷雾流化式、喷雾带式等多种形式。各种喷雾造粒方法不同,产品的颗粒也有一些区别。

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